The intention of the law is to protect minors. As of the 2017 Rosstat, the federal subject's population is 5,281,579 or 3.6% of the total population of Russia;[citation needed] up from 4,879,566 (3.4%) recorded in the 2010 Census,[58] and up from 5,023,506 recorded in the 1989 Census.[59]. [40] Meanwhile, the oblast whose administrative center is also in Saint Petersburg is still named Leningrad. However, it was not until 1850 that the first permanent bridge across the Neva, Annunciation Bridge, was allowed to open. [100] In 1992, the 7th Symphony was performed by the 14 surviving orchestral players of the Leningrad premiere in the same hall as half a century before. There are hundreds of smaller bridges in Saint Petersburg spanning numerous canals and distributaries of the Neva, some of the most important of which are the Moika, Fontanka, Griboyedov Canal, Obvodny Canal, Karpovka and Smolenka. Applied filters: St Petersburg. The Saint Petersburg Mint (Monetny Dvor), founded in 1724, is one of the largest mints in the world, it mints Russian coins, medals and badges. St. Petersburg, Russian Sankt-Peterburg, formerly (1914–24) Petrograd and (1924–91) Leningrad, city and port, extreme northwestern Russia. Specialties: Let us plan and host your next event. Based on the 2010 census results the population is over 4.8 million. We are a full-service event planner centrally located in beautiful St. Petersburg, Florida "Service Is Our Signature" Services Offered: -Wedding Catering -Party Catering -Corporate Catering -Breakfast Catering -Lunch Catering -Dinner Catering -Party Furniture Rental … On the territory between the Neva and Nevsky Prospekt the Church of the Savior on Blood, Mikhailovsky Palace housing the Russian Museum, Field of Mars, St. Michael's Castle, Summer Garden, Tauride Palace, Smolny Institute and Smolny Convent are located. Mravinsky's term as artistic director of the Leningrad Philharmonic—a term that is possibly the longest of any conductor with any orchestra in modern times—led the orchestra from a little-known provincial ensemble to one of the world's most highly regarded orchestras, especially for the performance of Russian music. Leningrad again took its old name of St. Petersburg on September 6, 1991, when Russia stopped being communist. [62] From 1941 to the end of 1943, population dropped from 3 million to less than 600,000, as people died in battles, starved to death or were evacuated during the Siege of Leningrad. Many others escaped or were evacuated, so the city became largely depopulated. It’s quite literally overwhelming. Dr. Baker has a diverse background in primary care; he has practiced medicine in a hospital setting, urgent care clinics and provided rehabilitative care. It was heard over the radio and was said to have lifted the spirits of the surviving population. Anna Akhmatova became an important leader for Russian poetry. Dmitri Shostakovich, who was born and raised in Saint Petersburg, dedicated his Seventh Symphony to the city, calling it the "Leningrad Symphony". Due to its northerly location at ca. Saint Petersburg has three skyscrapers: Leader Tower (140 m), Alexander Nevsky (124 m) and Atlantic City (105 m) all far from the historical centre. Saint Petersburg is a major trade gateway, serving as the financial and industrial centre of Russia, with specializations in oil and gas trade; shipbuilding yards; aerospace industry; technology, including radio, electronics, software, and computers; machine building, heavy machinery and transport, including tanks and other military equipment; mining; instrument manufacture; ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy (production of aluminium alloys); chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and medical equipment; publishing and printing; food and catering; wholesale and retail; textile and apparel industries; and many other businesses. Whatever the reason, here are the most interesting facts about St Petersburg … Saint Petersburg is a major transport hub. St. Petersburg:Architecture of the Tsars. In 1716, Peter the Great appointed Frenchman Jean-Baptiste Alexandre Le Blond as the chief architect of Saint Petersburg.[29]. The embankments and bridges are separated from rivers and canals by granite or cast iron parapets. Peter moved the capital from Moscow to Saint Petersburg in 1712, 9 years before the Treaty of Nystad of 1721 ended the war; he referred to Saint Petersburg as the capital (or seat of government) as early as 1704. Official throughout the Russian Federation according to Article 68.1 of the. A proponent of westernising Russia, Peter the Great, who established the city, originally named it Sankt-Pieter-Burch (Сан(к)т-Питер-Бурхъ) in Dutch manner and later its spelling was standardised as Sankt-Peterburg (Санкт-Петербургъ[a]) under German influence. Saint Petersburg and Leningrad Oblast, being two different federal subjects, share a number of local departments of federal executive agencies and courts, such as court of arbitration, police, FSB, postal service, drug enforcement administration, penitentiary service, federal registration service, and other federal services. Saint Petersburg has an extensive city-funded network of public transport (buses, trams, trolleybuses) and several hundred routes served by marshrutkas. Any altering of the university’s name from USF St. Petersburg campus or University of South Florida St. Petersburg campus must be approved by Marketing and Communications. [107] The largest of the public higher education institutions is Saint Petersburg State University, enrolling approximately 32,000 undergraduate students; and the largest non-governmental higher education institutions is the Institute of International Economic Relations, Economics, and Law. is set in Saint Petersburg and pokes fun at Soviet city planning. After the October Revolution the name Red Petrograd (Красный Петроград, Krasny Petrograd) was often used in newspapers and other prints until the city was renamed Leningrad in January 1924. Dostoyevsky called it "The most abstract and intentional city in the world", emphasizing its artificiality, but it was also a symbol of modern disorder in a changing Russia. All of them deserve attention, be it for their art collections or exquisite interiors. The Moscow – Saint Petersburg Railway opened in 1851, and is 651 kilometers (405 mi) long; the commute to Moscow now requires from three and a half to nine hours.[118]. Travel with us to see how much you know about the world we live in and its many unique places. By the 1930s, 68% of the population lived in such housing. With the emancipation of the serfs undertaken by Alexander II in 1861 and an Industrial Revolution, the influx of former peasants into the capital increased greatly. The city is the final destination for a web of intercity and suburban railways, served by five different railway terminals (Baltiysky, Finlyandsky, Ladozhsky, Moskovsky and Vitebsky),[c][117] as well as dozens of non-terminal railway stations within the federal subject. However, there was a controversial project endorsed by the city authorities, and known as the Okhta Center, to build a 396 meters (1,299 ft) supertall skyscraper. To prevent floods, the Saint Petersburg Dam has been constructed.[48]. In 2014 Rostelecom, the national operator announced it began a major modernization of the fixed-line network in the city.[99]. The renowned Russian composer Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov also taught at the conservatory from 1871 to 1905. Neighboring St. Pete Beach formally shortened its name in 1994 after a vote by its residents. Later some streets and other toponyms were renamed accordingly. Area city, 550 square miles (1,400 square km). On street metered parking is available in front of and in close proximity to City Hall. The shipping company St Peter Line operates two ferries that sail from Helsinki to St Petersburg and from Stockholm to St Petersburg.[116]. The construction of freeways such as the Saint Petersburg Ring Road, completed in 2011, and the Western High-Speed Diameter, completed in 2017, helped reduce the traffic in the city. The budget deficit amounted to about 42 billion rubles. The apartments of some famous Petersburgers, including Alexander Pushkin, Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, Feodor Chaliapin, Alexander Blok, Vladimir Nabokov, Anna Akhmatova, Mikhail Zoshchenko, Joseph Brodsky, as well as some palace and park ensembles of the southern suburbs and notable architectural monuments such as St. Isaac's Cathedral, have also been turned into public museums. ALTER G Anti-Gravity Treadmills™ are being used by NASA and Pro Sports Teams and there now available for you in St Petersburg FL. Senior Lecturer in Geography, University College, 1972–94, and School of Slavonic and East European Studies, 1972–91, University of London. On 26 January 1924, shortly after the death of Vladimir Lenin, it was renamed to Leningrad (Russian: Ленинград, IPA: [lʲɪnʲɪnˈgrat]), meaning "Lenin's City". Saint Petersburg is home to more than two hundred museums, many of them in historic buildings. During the NHL lockout, stars Ilya Kovalchuk, Sergei Bobrovsky and Vladimir Tarasenko also played for the team. Nevsky Prospekt crosses the Moika (Green Bridge), Griboyedov Canal (Kazansky Bridge), Garden Street, the Fontanka (Anichkov Bridge), meets Liteyny Prospekt and proceeds to Uprising Square near the Moskovsky railway station, where it meets Ligovsky Prospekt and turns to the Alexander Nevsky Lavra. [69] Non-Abrahamic religions and other faiths are represented by only 1.2% of the total population. [69], There are 268 communities of confessions and religious associations in the city: the Russian Orthodox Church (130 associations), Pentecostalism (23 associations), the Lutheranism (19 associations), Baptism (13 associations), as well as Old Believers, Roman Catholic Church, Armenian Apostolic Church, Georgian Orthodox Church, Seventh-day Adventist Church, Judaism, Buddhist, Muslim, Bahá'í and others.[69]. In the early 2000s the city saw a wave of popularity of metalcore, rapcore, and emocore, and there are bands such as Amatory, Kirpichi, Psychea, Stigmata, Grenouer and Animal Jazz. Some of these structures, such as the Saint Petersburg Commodity and Stock Exchange have been recognised as town-planning errors.[90]. By accessing this website we assume you accept these terms and conditions. [88] The Okhta Center project was cancelled at the end of 2010 and the Lakhta Center project began in the city's outskirts. Saint Petersburg is also the unofficial but de facto administrative centre of Leningrad Oblast, and of the Northwestern Federal District. Amery, Colin, Brian Curran & Yuri Molodkovets. Petropol Name found in poetry. Winter temperatures can drop below −40 °F (−40 °C), however. [31] After that the city acquired a new descriptive name, "the city of three revolutions",[32] referring to the three major developments in the political history of Russia of the early 20th century. [citation needed] Urgent protests by citizens and prominent public figures of Russia against this project were not considered by Governor Valentina Matviyenko and the city authorities until December 2010, when after the statement of President Dmitry Medvedev, the city decided to find a more appropriate location for this project. could result in the loss of the unique line of Petersburg landscape. A number of museums provide insight into the Soviet history of Saint Petersburg, including the Museum of the Blockade, which describes the Siege of Leningrad and the Museum of Political History, which explains many authoritarian features of the USSR. Weather conditions are quite variable all year round.[50][51]. Monuments and bronze statues of the Tsars, as well as other important historic figures and dignitaries, and other world-famous monuments, such as the sculptures by Peter Clodt von Jürgensburg, Paolo Troubetzkoy, Mark Antokolsky, and others, were made there. In March 1917, during the February Revolution Nicholas II abdicated for himself and on behalf of his son, ending the Russian monarchy and over three hundred years of Romanov dynastic rule. Nevsky Prospekt with Palace Square maintained the functions and the role of a city centre. Saint Petersburg has a large brewery and distillery industry. Rooms also include refrigerators and coffee makers. Saint Petersburg surpassed Moscow in population and industrial growth; it developed as one of the largest industrial cities in Europe, with a major naval base (in Kronstadt), river and sea port. Many monuments commemorate the Russian victory over Napoleonic France in the Patriotic War of 1812, including the Alexander Column by Montferrand, erected in 1834, and the Narva Triumphal Arch. That’s just one of the reasons professional athletes use the Alter G Anti-Gravity Treadmill. The Registered Agent on file for this company is Sobkiw Walter and is located at 1700 Tanglewood Dr Ne, St Petersburg, FL 33702. [35] In Leningrad, approximately 40,000 were executed during Stalin's purges. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The southern coast of Vasilyevsky Island along the Bolshaya Neva features some of the city's oldest buildings, dating from the 18th century, including the Kunstkamera, Twelve Collegia, Menshikov Palace and Imperial Academy of Arts. St. Petersburg has played a vital role in Russian history since its founding in 1703. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. The title of the city head was changed from "mayor" to "governor". The ethnicity of the remaining 13.4% of the inhabitants was not specified. The climate of Saint Petersburg is close to that of Helsinki, although colder in winter and warmer in summer because of its more eastern location. Remaining faithful to the classical basis (he was a choreographer at the Vaganova Academy of Russian Ballet), he combined classical ballet with the avant-garde style, and then, in turn, with acrobatics, rhythmic gymnastics, dramatic expressiveness, cinema, color, light, and finally with spoken word. Sosnovka is the largest park within the city limits, occupying 240 ha. Baldack, Richard H. "Leningrad, Siege of". It set records for the fastest train in Russia on 2 May 2009, travelling at 281 km/h (174.6 mph)[119] and on 7 May 2009, traveling at 290 kilometers per hour (180 mph). Paris, Bujumbura, Pierre, and Nuuk all have something in common: they are all capital cities. These terms and conditions outline the rules and regulations for the use of St Petersburg Foundation’s Website, located at Icebreakers prolong the navigation season. [67] Since 2012 the birth rate became higher than the death rate. Visit Tru by Hilton St. Petersburg Downtown Central Avenue at 1650 Central Ave., St. Petersburg, 33712. As of 2013[update], the Pulkovo airport, which handles over 12 million passengers annually, is the 3rd busiest in Russia after Moscow's Sheremetyevo and Domodedovo. Trams in Saint Petersburg used to be the main mean of transport; in the 1980s this was the largest tram network in the world, but many tracks were dismantled in the 2000s. The company's filing status is listed as Active and its File Number is N18000013395. This northern extension is an area of dormitory towns, resorts, sanatoriums, and children’s camps set among extensive coniferous forests and fringed by fine beaches and sand dunes. Whether it’s an ancient capital of an empire or a current capital of a province, you’ll find it in this quiz. Alternative Titles: Leningrad, Petrograd, Sankt-Peterburg. Constructivism was rejected in favour of a more pompous Stalinist architecture. Yachting events were held by the Russian Navy since the foundation of the city. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, St. Petersburg imbibed a new energy as crumbling facades, potholed roads, and cultural landmarks were renovated. In 2008, the World Monuments Fundinclude… At that time it included the Leningrad Suburban District, some parts of which were transferred back to Leningrad Oblast in 1936 and turned into Vsevolozhsky District, Krasnoselsky District, Pargolovsky District and Slutsky District (renamed Pavlovsky District in 1944). The annual International Music Festival SKIF is named after him. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. The Leningrad Metro underground rapid transit system, designed before the war, opened in 1955 with its first eight stations decorated with marble and bronze. On 1 September 1914, after the outbreak of World War I, the Imperial government renamed the city Petrograd (Russian: Петроград[a], IPA: [pʲɪtrɐˈgrat]),[17] meaning "Peter's city", in order to expunge the German words Sankt and Burg. Other notable museums include the Central Naval Museum, and Zoological Museum, Central Soil Museum, the Russian Railway Museum, Suvorov Museum, Museum of the Siege of Leningrad, Erarta Museum of Contemporary Art, the largest non-governmental Museum of contemporary art in Russia, Saint Petersburg Museum of History in the Peter and Paul Fortress and Artillery Museum, which includes not only artillery items, but also a huge collection of other military equipment, uniforms and decorations. The first high bridge that does not need to be drawn, a 2,824-meter (9,265 ft) long Big Obukhovsky Bridge, opened in 2004. In 2009 Russian Railways launched a high speed service for the Moscow–Saint Petersburg route. Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", No. In 1951 a crowd of 110,000 set the single-game attendance record for Soviet football. Instead, the … Saint Petersburg is about 165 km (103 miles) from the border with Finland, connected to it via the M10 highway. Along with their popularity, they are one of the best teams in the KHL right now, as they have won the Gagarin Cup twice. In June 1703 Peter the Great gave the site the name Sankt Pieter Burkh (an emulation of Dutch topographical suffix -burg, which refers to fortified towns and places, as Peter was a Neerlandophile) which was subsequently russified.[53][54]. For two centuries (1712–1918) it was the capital of the Russian Empire. The former governor, Valentina Matviyenko, was approved according to the new system in December 2006. [63][64] For the first half of 2007, the birth rate was 9.1 per 1000[65] and remained lower than the death rate (until 2012[66]); people over 65 constitute more than twenty percent of the population; and the median age is about 40 years. Southern suburbs of the city feature former imperial residences, including Petergof, with majestic fountain cascades and parks, Tsarskoe Selo, with the baroque Catherine Palace and the neoclassical Alexander Palace, and Pavlovsk, which has a domed palace of Emperor Paul and one of Europe's largest English-style parks. Saint Petersburg is also home to the oldest and largest Russian foundry, Monumentskulptura, which made thousands of sculptures and statues that now grace public parks of Saint Petersburg, as well as many other cities. [18][19][20] Another nickname of St. Petersburg is The City of White Nights because of a natural phenomenon which arises due to the closeness to the polar region and ensures that in summer the nights of the city do not get completely dark for a month.[21][22]. The city was divided into five boroughs, and the city centre was moved to the Admiralty borough, on the east bank between the Neva and Fontanka. To control the destructive floodwaters, the city built in the 1980s an 18-mile- (29-km-) long dike across the Gulf of Finland. Snow cover lasts on the average about 132 days. They were proud of that too: during my 2 week trip the Russian guide kept telling us "Wait til we get to St. Petersburg, its the best of Russia's big cities". [10] It served as a capital of the Tsardom of Russia and the subsequent Russian Empire from 1713 to 1918 (being replaced by Moscow for a short period of time between 1728 and 1730). International cruise liners have been served at the passenger port at Morskoy Vokzal on the south-west of Vasilyevsky Island. The expected price of renting a … [123][124] There were a number of movies filmed in Saint Petersburg about the life of crime, Bandit Petersburg and Brother, reinforcing its image as the Crime Capital of Russia. [34], On 1 December 1934, Sergey Kirov, the popular communist leader of Leningrad, was assassinated, which became the pretext for the Great Purge. You may use map navigation tools to adjust map scope and zoom level of St Petersburg Airport map. [101] The Leningrad Philharmonic Orchestra remained one of the best known symphony orchestras in the world under the leadership of conductors Yevgeny Mravinsky and Yuri Temirkanov. The oldest ones is LIVIZ (founded in 1897). Among his students were Igor Stravinsky, Alexander Glazounov, Anatoly Liadov and others. They were accused of Russian nationalism.[39]. [30] In 1728, Peter II of Russia moved his seat back to Moscow. Known as Russia's "beer capital" due to the supply and quality of local water, its five large breweries account for over 30% of the country's domestic beer production. And there are thousands more. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Prominent settlers name them after themselves. In the south Saint Petersburg crosses the Baltic-Ladoga Klint and meets the Izhora Plateau. The Hero-City Obelisk bearing the Gold Star sign was installed in April 1985. [72] The political life of Saint Petersburg is regulated by the Charter of Saint Petersburg adopted by the city legislature in 1998. On the north it stretches westward along the shore for nearly 50 miles (80 km) to include Zelenogorsk. & Alexander Orloff. The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR awarded Leningrad as a Hero City the Order of Lenin and the Gold Star medal "for the heroic resistance of the city and tenacity of the survivors of the Siege". States, Cities, towns, villages and their waterways and geographical features in the USA are named in a variety of ways. The minorities of Germans, Poles, Finns, Estonians and Latvians were almost completely transferred from Leningrad during the 1930s. Saint Petersburg has a longstanding and world famous tradition in literature. [91], Saint Petersburg has a significant historical and cultural heritage.[92][93][94][95][96][97][98]. From 1991 to 2006 the city's population decreased to 4.6 million, while the suburban population increased due to privatization of land and massive move to suburbs. In 2006, Saint Petersburg's city budget was 180 billion rubles (about 7 billion US$ at 2006 exchange rates),. The northernmost metropolis in the world, St. Petersburg is often called the Venice of the North or Russian Venice due to its many water corridors, as the city is built on swamp and water. The rivers and canals in the city centre are lined with granite embankments. In 1724 the Academy of Sciences, University and Academic Gymnasium were established in Saint Petersburg by Peter the Great. You do not need to be a resident of the City of St. Petersburg to register. Ten per cent of the world's power turbines are made there at the LMZ, which built over two thousand turbines for power plants across the world. Do not continue to use St Petersburg Foundation if you do not agree to take […] [44] This agreement was abolished on 4 April 2002.[45]. Every year the city hosts around 100 festivals and various competitions of art and culture, including more than 50 international ones. A 14- to 15-letter-long name, composed of the three roots proved too cumbersome, and many shortened versions were used. Lessner in 1904, with designs by Boris Loutsky, and it survived until 1910.[78]. Some of the most well-known are in the southern suburbs, including Pavlovsk, one of Europe's largest English gardens. As an important Russian port on the Baltic Sea, it is governed as a federal city. The 310-meter (1,020 ft) tall Saint Petersburg TV Tower is the tallest completed structure in the city. It is a terminus of both the Volga-Baltic and White Sea-Baltic waterways. Saint Petersburg was a … It was premiered in Samara in March 1942; a few months later, it received its first performance in the besieged Leningrad at the Bolshoy Philharmonic Hall under the baton of conductor Karl Eliasberg. 2. In 2008 the first two berths opened at the New Passenger Port on the west of the island. The average maximum temperature in July is 23 °C (73 °F), and the average minimum temperature in February is −8.5 °C (16.7 °F); an extreme temperature of 37.1 °C (98.8 °F) occurred during the 2010 Northern Hemisphere summer heat wave. The name day of Peter I falls on 29 June, when the Russian Orthodox Church observes the memory of Saint Apostles Peter and Paul. The project was not completed but is evident in the layout of the streets. 20, named Leningrad, alongside Stalingrad, Sevastopol, and Odessa, hero cities of the war. The Spit of Vasilievsky Island, which splits the river into two largest armlets, the Bolshaya Neva and Malaya Neva, is connected to the northern bank (Petrogradsky Island) via the Exchange Bridge and occupied by the Old Saint Petersburg Stock Exchange and Rostral Columns. On the southern, left bank of the Neva, connected to the spit of Vasilyevsky Island via the Palace Bridge, lie the Admiralty building, the vast Hermitage Museum complex stretching along the Palace Embankment, which includes the Baroque Winter Palace, former official residence of Russian emperors, as well as the neoclassical Marble Palace. The Revolution of 1905 began in Saint Petersburg and spread rapidly into the provinces. Nobody had conquered the city (nobody ever has). On 1 May 1945 Joseph Stalin, in his Supreme Commander Order No. The most prominent neoclassical and Empire-style architects in Saint Petersburg included: In 1810, Alexander I established the first engineering Higher education, the Saint Petersburg Main military engineering School in Saint Petersburg. In 2007, Toyota opened a Camry plant after investing 5 billion roubles (approx. The most remarkable bridges of our days are Korabelny and Petrovsky cable-stayed bridges, which form the most spectacular part of the city toll road, Western High-Speed Diameter. In 2006 the city legislature re-approved Matviyenko as governor. The Registered Agent on file for this company is Feazell James and is located at 5470 E. Busch Blvd, Temple Terrace, FL 33617. However, the public universities are all federal property and do not belong to the city. Saint Petersburg is divided into 18 administrative districts: Within the boundaries of the districts there are 111. [113][needs update] Construction began in 2010 and the first sections of the freeway were finished in 2014 and 2015. 16 May] 1703,[25] closer to the estuary 5 km (3 mi) inland from the gulf),[clarification needed] on Zayachy (Hare) Island, he laid down the Peter and Paul Fortress, which became the first brick and stone building of the new city. As of 2006[update]–2007 there were 1024 kindergartens, 716 public schools and 80 vocational schools in Saint Petersburg. The construction was started in 1995. Yacht clubs:[108] St. Petersburg River Yacht Club, Neva Yacht Club, the latter is the oldest yacht club in the world. The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 7 km, while 15.% travel for over 12 km in a single direction.[114]. In the 1970s many bands came out from the "underground" scene and eventually founded the Leningrad Rock Club, which provided a stage to bands such as DDT, Kino, headed by Viktor Tsoi, Alisa, Zemlyane, Zoopark, Piknik, Secret, and many other popular bands. The Oblast (administrative province) where the city is the capital is still called "Leningrad Oblast". The characteristic architecture of Petrine St. Petersburg can be evaluated based on the following buildings: The Twelve Colleges, the Menshikov Palace, Peter the Great's Summer Palace in the Summer Garden, and the Kunstkammer. Petersburg motorway believed to be opened by 2018", "Saint Petersburg Public Transportation Statistics", Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, "Trip by hydrofoil to Kronstadt from St. Petersburg", "Results of train ticket inquiry, Russian train schedules and Russian train tickets", "Sapsan claims Russian rail speed record", "Allegro trains suffered from the biggest problems in its history", "Crime preventing measures have made good results: An official portal of the administration of St. Petersburg", "Canada warns gay travellers to Russia on heels of law banning homosexual "propaganda, "Saint Petersburg in figures – International and Interregional Ties", "Bordeaux – Rayonnement européen et mondial", "Bordeaux-Atlas français de la coopération décentralisée et des autres actions extérieures", "St. Petersburg to promote Cebu as tourism spot", "Gdańsk Official Website: 'Miasta partnerskie, "Los Angeles City Council: Sister cities of Los Angeles", "Partner Cities of Lyon and Greater Lyon", "International relations: Saint Petersburg", "City of Melbourne – International relations – Sister cities", "Official Website of Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai", "Osaka and the World, the official website of the Osaka city", "Chairman of the Committee for External Relations of St. Petersburg", "The city of Lviv, and its sister cities", "Online Directory: Russian Federation, Eurasia", "Porto Alegre's International Sister Cities Program", "International Affairs – Twinnings and Agreements", "La Stampa – Torino-San Pietroburgo, c'è l'intesa sull'asse strategico", "Town of Westport, CT : Sister Cities Committee", "Milan severs twin city ties with St Petersburg over 'homosexual propaganda' ban", "Associazione radicale Certi Diritti | Gemellaggio tra Milano e San Pietroburgo: Consiglio comunale approva mozione che ne chiede la sospensione", "Associazione radicale Certi Diritti | Venezia approva mozione per la sospensione degli effetti del gemellaggio con San Pietroburgo", Bibliography of the history of Saint Petersburg, St-Petersburg, Virtual Tour • 360° Aerial Panorama, "Saint Petersburg, 1900: a photographic travelogue of the capital of Imperial Russia", Байков В.Д.